نوع : گزارش
ناشر : UNCTAD
نوع فایل : PDF
زبان : انگلیسی
صفحه : 422

گزارش کلی صنایع خلاق ۲۰۱۰

This Creative Economy Report 2010: Creative Economy – A Feasible Development Option is the second policy-oriented report to present the United Nations perspective on this innovative topic. It builds on the first Report but goes further by deepening the analysis, bringing fresh approaches and identifying trends, strengths and weaknesses as well as challenges and opportunities to be addressed. It provides information on recent developments at the country level and reviews the market situation for all creative industries: arts and crafts, audiovisuals, books, design, the film industry, music, new media, printed media, visual arts and creative services. Overall, the Report examines economic, cultural, social, technological and environmental developments that took place at the global level over the last two years, in particular the consequences of the financial crisis.
The creative economy throughout this decade became well-inserted into the international economic and development agenda, calling for new insights and policy responses. Adequately nurtured, creativity fuels culture, infuses a human-centred development and constitutes the key  ngredient for job creation, innovation and trade while contributing to social inclusion, cultural diversity and environmental sustainability. The Report recalls that appropriate institutional and regulatory frameworks for the optimal functioning of the “creative nexus” to attract investors, technology, innovation and creative business are prerequisites for enhancing the creative economy.
In 2008, the eruption of the world financial and economic crisis provoked a drop in global demand and a contraction of 12 per cent in international trade. Nevertheless, world exports of creative goods and services continued to grow, reaching $592 billion in 2008 — more than double their 2002 level, indicating an annual growth rate of 14 per cent over six consecutive years. This confirms that the creative industries hold great potential for developing countries that seek to diversify their economies and leapfrog into one of the most dynamic sectors of the world economy. Moreover, the global market has been receiving a boost from the increase in South-South trade; opportunities occur where demand is growing. The South’s exports of creative goods to the world reached $176 billion in 2008, accounting for 43 per cent of total creative industries trade. In the aftermath of the crisis, the firmness of the market for creative products is a sign
that many people in the world are eager for culture, social events, entertainment and leisure.
The creative economy relies on ideas, knowledge, skills and ability to seize new opportunities. The spread of the digital revolution, especially in mobile phones, combined with the growing impact of social networks, is unlocking marketing and distribution channels for music, digital animation, films, news, advertising, etc., thereby expanding the economic benefits of the creative economy. The new lifestyle of contemporary society is increasingly associated with status, style, brands and differentiation, which are rooted in the creative economy. The Report also stresses that the creative economy and the green economy are mutually supportive. Sensitive areas, including the controversial debates about the protection or the sharing of knowledge and information, are also examined; the Report urges governments to revisit the current intellectual property rights regimes.
In summary, the Creative Economy Report 2010 underscores 10 key messages calling for a new development path to reorient policies towards more equitable, sustainable and inclusive growth strategies. There is no one-size-fits-all prescription; each country should formulate a strategy to foster its creative economy, based on its own strengths, weaknesses and realities. The Report provides evidence that the creative economy is a feasible development option. The time for action is now.

 

Contents

Foreword
Acknowledgements
Scope of this report
Ten key messages
Abbreviations and acronyms
PART 1. THE CREATIVE ECONOMY
 Concept and context of the creative economy
Evolving concepts and definitions
Creativity
Creative goods and services
Cultural industries
Cultural economics
Creative industries
The UNCTAD classification of the creative industrie
The creative economy
The creative class and creative entrepreneurs
Creative cities
Creative clusters, networks and districts
Cultural and creative commons
Experience economy
Creative ecology
Major drivers of the creative economy worldwide
Technology
Demand
Tourism
 The multiple dimensions of the creative economy
Economic aspects
Social aspects
Cultural aspects
Sustainable development
The cross-cutting nature of creative industries
Need for concerted inter-ministerial policies
Need for dialogue with multiple stakeholders
Need for institutional mechanisms
The creative economy in the developed world
 The development dimension
Policy implications: The Millennium Development Goals
The creative economy: Linkages and development implications
Multifaceted aspects of the creative economy
Cultural and technological linkages
Social interactions
Traditional knowledge, culture and the creative economy
The creative economy in the developing world and transition economies
Africa
The Asia-Pacific region
Central Asia and the Middle East
Latin America
Caribbean
Eastern European economies in transition
Creative economy and the green economy
Creativity and biodiversity: A win-win solution
PART 2. ASSESSING THE CREATIVE ECONOMY:ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT
 Analysing the creative economy
The need for systematic analysis
Organization of the creative economy
Organizational structures
Operational matters
Locational issues
The power of social networks
Economic analysis of the creative industries
Industrial organization analysis
Value-chain analysis
Inter-industry analysis
Locational analysis
Environmental analysis
Copyright and intellectual property
Contract theory
Structure of the creative industries
Predominance of small and medium-sized enterprises
Large-scale corporate enterprises
Public or quasi-public cultural institutions
Individual artists and producers
Distribution and competition issues
Changing consumption patterns
Creative industries and regulation
An application of production-chain analysis: The music industry in sub-Saharan Africa
 Towards an evidence-based assessment of the creative economy
Why we need a new information base and why it doesn’t already exist
Towards a reliable benchmark for the creative economy
 The challenge of building an operational model of the creative economy
Measures: Their limitations and potential
Employment
Time use
Trade and value added
Copyright and intellectual property rights issues
Public investment
Implementation of a Culture Satellite Account
Data sources and assessment tools: Why the current data are inadequate
The case for a trade model for the creative industries using a product classification methodology
Comparative analysis of statistical methodologies for international trade of creative and cultural goods
Trade statistics for creative and cultural goods: selected methodologies
Summary comparison of statistics methodologies for creative and cultural goods
Lesson learned from the comparative studyanalysis
Methodological basis for a unified measure of international trade of creative goods
Main considerations
PART 3. INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN CREATIVE GOODS AND SERVICES
 International trade in creative goods and services: Global trends and features
Setting the scene
Creative industries: A new dynamic sector in world trade
Global trends in world trade of creative goods and services
Global trends in world exports
Global trends in world imports
Key players in the global market for creative goods
Country profiles on the creative economy
Regional economic groups in world markets
Prospects for North-South and South-South trade in creative goods and services
Global trends in international trade of creative industries, by sectors
Heritage
Performing arts
Visual arts
Audiovisuals
Publishing and printed media
Design
New media
Creative services
Royalties and licence fees
Related industries
PART 4. THE ROLE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND TECHNOLOGY
 The role of intellectual property in the creative economy
Introduction
What are intellectual property rights
Intellectual property and the creative industries
Geographical indications and appellations of origin
Copyright and the creative economy
Exclusive rights
Moral rights
Related rights
Exceptions and limitations to copyright
Enforcement of copyright
The economics of copyright
Creative Commons licences: A fast-growing movement
Contribution of the creative industries to the economy
Copyright, the creative industries and traditional cultural expressions
Indigenous communities and new technologies
Copyrights and new technologie
Possible policy options
Technology, connectivity and the creative economy
Introduction
Connectivity and its wider impact
The mobile revolution
Fastest growth of Internet users in the South
Developing countries lag behind in terms of broadband connectivity
Global shifts boost South-South trade and investment in ICT goods
Measurement issues and creative content
ICTs and their impact on the creative economy
The growing importance of ICTs for the creative industries
Digitization
Convergence and new business models
Impact across the production chain
Looking to the future
PART 5. PROMOTING THE CREATIVE ECONOMY FOR DEVELOPMENT
 Policy strategies for the creative industries
Introduction
The role of public policies
The policy process
Policy directions
Provision of infrastructure
Provision of finance and investment
Creation of institutional mechanisms
Regulatory framework and legislation
Development of exports markets
Establishment of creative clusters
Stimulating creative entrepreneurship
Institution of effective data-collection measures
A creative nexus for enhancing the creative economy
The creative nexus model
Targeted measures for strengthening the creative economy
Non-formal sector
Creative arts
Small and medium-sized enterprises
Public cultural institutions
Corporate sector
Tailoring policy action at the national level
The international dimension of creative-industries policy

 UNCTAD: Creative industries on the economic and development agenda
UNCTAD X: Audiovisual services
Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries: Music
UNCTAD XI: Creative industries — A turning point
UNCTAD XII: From the creative industries to the creative economy
WTO multilateral negotiations and implications for creative industries
The crisis and the international trading system
Market access, tariff and non-tariff barriers
General Agreement on Trade in Services
TRIPS Agreement
Implications of regional trade agreements for creative industries
UNESCO cultural-diversity perspective
WIPO Development Agenda
UNDP: Engaging developing countries in the creative economy for development
ITC: Creating business opportunities for creative industries
UNEP: Promoting biodiversity benefits for the creative industries
 Lessons learned and policy options
Lessons learned
Major findings
Definitions and concepts
Cross-cutting linkages
The creative economy in the developed world
The creative economy in the developing world
The value chain for creative products
Data issues
Trade
Connectivity and ICTs
Policy towards the creative economy
International context
Policy options
Role of governments
Role of creative entrepreneurs
Role of civil society and the place of strategic alliances
۱۰.۳.۴ Role of international cooperation
References
Statistical Annex

 

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